Golgi Apparatus

  • Near nucleus
  • Post-translational modifications of proteins

(Source: Wikipedia)

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

  • Rough ER: Main protein synthesis site, lipid production
  • Smooth ER: Lipid metabolism

(Source: Wikipedia)

Ribosomes

  • 30 nm
  • 4 subunits of ribosomal RNA
  • Assemble with mRNA for protein synthesis
  • Basophilic

(Source: Wikipedia)

Mitochondria

  • 10 µm in length
  • Primary site of oxidative phosphorylation
  • Amount in cell is proportional to energetic demands
  • Cristae: Folded inner membrane

(Source: Wikipedia)

Endocytosis and Exocytosis

Endocytosis

  • Pinocytosis: Ingestion of fluids and small molecules
  • Phagocytosis: Ingestion of large particles
  • Receptor-mediated endocytosis: Entry of specific molecules

Exocytosis: From the cytoplasm out to the cell membrane and beyond

Cell Membrane Structures

Glycocalyx: Oligosaccharides used for cell recognition, receptor cites and metabolism

Protein components: Integral and peripheral proteins. Includes transport proteins, ion channels, receptors and cell anchors.

Lipid rafts: Increases fluidity (mobility) with cholesterol and glycosphingolipids

Plasma Membrane

  • 7.5 to 10 nm thick
  • Lipid bilayer. However, note that each side is different
  • Composition: 50% protein, 45% lipid, 5% carbohydrate

(Source: Wikipedia)

Overview
Histology is an image-intensive course that requires special attention to details. Dr Woodward used to say to his medical interns: “When you hear hoofbeats, think of horses not zebras.” Histology, at times, intends for us to do the opposite; it asks to look for those zebras, those defining characteristics that make each tissue different. {

Overview

Histology is an image-intensive course that requires special attention to details. Dr Woodward used to say to his medical interns: “When you hear hoofbeats, think of horses not zebras.” Histology, at times, intends for us to do the opposite; it asks to look for those zebras, those defining characteristics that make each tissue different.

Welcome!

This blog is a study guide for my Histology course. Naturally, its contents are not authoritative and may be fallible. Feel free to drop a message pointing out these errors. As reference, we use Junqueira’s Basic Histology: Text & Atlas (13th ed) and DiFiore’s Atlas of Histology (12th ed).